Do Sharks Live in Saltwater?

There are more than 400 shark species that inhabit various parts of the world. Some sharks live in the deep and cold waters, while others prefer the warmer and shallower areas. All sharks are classified as fish, and their skeletons are made of cartilage instead of bone.

Sharks have different features that distinguish them from one another, such as fins, gills, and teeth. Some sharks have fins on their backs, while others have fins on both their backs and undersides. All sharks have gills, but the number of gill slits can range from five to seven. Shark teeth can be flat, sharp, or thorny. Sharks are born with teeth and continuously grow new ones. For instance, the whale shark can have thousands of teeth, which is quite remarkable!

Another significant difference among sharks is their habitat. Most sharks live in the oceans, and it’s common to hear about shark sightings near beaches where people swim. However, did you know that there are shark species that live in rivers and lakes? It’s true!

The saltwater found in the ocean is vital for the survival of many sharks. Most sharks cannot tolerate freshwater flooding their cells and would die as a result. Nevertheless, there are a few species that can tolerate slightly salty water, known as brackish water. Some sharks have even adapted to survive exclusively in freshwater, while others can transition between saltwater and freshwater. Before getting alarmed about sharks in rivers and lakes, let’s discuss where the six species of freshwater sharks live.

Bull sharks are one of the most widespread and dangerous shark species found in rivers and lakes. They are originally saltwater fish but can survive in freshwater for extended periods. Bull sharks can grow up to 11 feet long and have thick, broad bodies. They have been sighted many miles inland in rivers like the Mississippi, Zambezi, and Nicaragua. There are also groups of bull sharks living in a few lakes, possibly due to flooding in nearby rivers.

Speartooth sharks can be found in both saltwater and freshwater. They are commonly found around Australia and New Guinea. The rising and falling tides assist these sharks in traveling upriver and back out to sea. Northern river sharks also inhabit the same area as Speartooth sharks. Young northern river sharks often migrate up several rivers in Australia, and researchers consider them to be one of the rarest shark species in the world.

Ganges sharks live in rivers in India, Bangladesh, Borneo, and Myanmar. Unlike other sharks that have eyes on the sides of their heads, Ganges sharks have eyes on top. This unique feature allows them to swim near the river bottom while scanning for food above. Ganges sharks exclusively inhabit freshwater environments.

The population of Pondicherry sharks worldwide remains uncertain. In 2011, scientists discovered that Pondicherry sharks were not extinct when a fisherman caught one in Sri Lanka. Very little is known about these small sharks and their preference for freshwater or saltwater habitats.

The last species to be discussed is the Greenland shark. These sharks can grow to a large size and have a long lifespan. They reach maturity at around 150 years old and can live up to 500 years. They are capable of swimming in deep, cold ocean waters. Researchers frequently observe Greenland sharks in Canadian rivers.

These six types of sharks demonstrate how animals can adapt to different habitats. Can you adapt to living in various locations? Can you think of other animals that have mastered this skill?

Try out these activities to learn more about sharks. Sharks have existed for millions of years, so there is much to discover!

1. As mentioned in today’s Wonder, sharks have skeletons made of cartilage. While humans and many other animals have bones, there are also animals with cartilage skeletons. Visit the library with a trusted adult and conduct research to find out more about these animals. Use art materials or a Canva template to create a display about animals and their skeletons. Discuss the importance of having a cartilage skeleton with your family and friends.

2. Imagine being a shark. What do you think are the advantages and challenges of living in the shark world? Write a short narrative from the perspective of a shark, incorporating the facts you learned from today’s Wonder.

3. Sharks are known for their numerous and sharp teeth. Research other animals that are also known for their teeth with the help of an adult. Are there animals with more teeth than sharks? Create a chart comparing ten animals, their number of teeth, and what makes their teeth unique. Consider how the shape of an animal’s teeth relates to its habitat and diet. Share your findings with others and see if they have any interesting dental or tooth-related facts to add.


– (accessed 13 July, 2023)

– (accessed 13 June, 2023)

– (accessed 14 June, 2023)

–,of%20different%20species%20of%20stingray (accessed 14 June, 2023)

– (accessed 14 June, 2023)


1. Do all sharks live in saltwater?

No, not all sharks live in saltwater. While most species of sharks are found in saltwater, there are some species that can also live in freshwater. These species are known as freshwater sharks. One example is the bull shark, which is known for its ability to swim in both saltwater and freshwater environments. Bull sharks have been found in rivers, lakes, and even freshwater swamps. However, it is important to note that the majority of shark species do prefer saltwater habitats.

2. Are there any freshwater sharks?

Yes, there are freshwater sharks. The bull shark is one of the most well-known freshwater shark species. It is able to tolerate both saltwater and freshwater environments and has been found in rivers, lakes, and even far upstream in some cases. Another example is the river shark, which is found in freshwater rivers in Australia and New Guinea. These freshwater sharks have adapted to survive and thrive in environments with lower salinity levels compared to their saltwater counterparts.

3. Why do most sharks live in saltwater?

Most sharks live in saltwater because they have evolved to thrive in marine environments. Saltwater provides sharks with the necessary nutrients and resources they need to survive. Additionally, saltwater offers a more stable and consistent habitat for sharks, as it has a higher salinity level and a larger variety of prey. The abundance of food sources and the suitable temperature and salinity levels make saltwater the ideal habitat for most shark species.

4. Can sharks survive in freshwater?

Some species of sharks can survive in freshwater, but not all. Sharks that are adapted to tolerate lower salinity levels, such as the bull shark and river shark, can survive and even thrive in freshwater environments. These sharks have specialized physiological adaptations that allow them to regulate their body’s osmotic balance and cope with the different challenges of living in freshwater. However, most shark species are not able to survive in freshwater for extended periods and are primarily restricted to saltwater habitats.

5. Are there any sharks that can live in both saltwater and freshwater?

Yes, there are sharks that can live in both saltwater and freshwater. The bull shark is a prime example of such a species. Bull sharks have the ability to tolerate a wide range of salinity levels and can swim upstream in rivers, sometimes even hundreds of miles away from the ocean. This adaptability allows them to inhabit both saltwater and freshwater environments. However, it is important to note that the majority of shark species are primarily found in saltwater habitats and only a few have successfully adapted to survive in freshwater.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *