Do you enjoy pancakes? What about muffins? Have you ever tasted banana bread or pumpkin cake? If you have, it’s likely that you’ve consumed buttermilk! But what exactly is buttermilk?
The answer to that question depends on when you ask it! Let’s take a trip back in time. Many years ago, people used to make butter at home. They would obtain milk from a cow and churn it to make butter. Churning involves mixing the milk for a prolonged period of time. After a while, the milk would start to separate, resulting in clumps of yellow, sticky butter. The leftover liquid was known as buttermilk.
This traditional buttermilk had a thin and watery consistency. If it was made from fresh milk, it would taste sweet. However, people often made butter from milk that wasn’t very fresh. Without refrigeration, milk would spoil quickly and acquire a sour taste. Bacteria from the cows would contaminate the milk. When butter was made from less fresh milk, the resulting buttermilk would be sour.
This type of buttermilk is acidic, which gives it its sour taste. People started using this sour buttermilk, along with baking soda or baking powder, as a leavening agent in baking. A leavening agent is a substance, like yeast, that helps dough rise. The air pockets in bread, pancakes, cake, and other baked goods are a result of leavening agents. When an acid (buttermilk) is mixed with a base (such as baking soda), bubbles form. These bubbles contain carbon dioxide, which is produced when the acid and base react. The acidity of buttermilk makes it an excellent leavening agent.
Without a leavening agent to create air pockets, breads would turn out flat. Breads that use leavening agents are referred to as “leavened” bread. However, not all breads need to be leavened. Unleavened breads include tortillas, roti, pita, and matzo. Crepes, which are a type of thin pancake, are also unleavened.
In modern times, we primarily use buttermilk as a leavening agent rather than for drinking. If you’ve ever attempted to drink buttermilk, you know that it has a sour taste! But does our modern buttermilk spoil? No. Modern buttermilk is not made through the process of churning butter. Instead, it is produced by adding bacteria to milk, which causes fermentation. So while buttermilk itself is not alive, it contains numerous tiny living organisms—bacteria.
You might be wondering, why would anyone intentionally add bacteria to food? Aren’t bacteria harmful? Some bacteria are harmful, but many are not. In fact, there are numerous beneficial bacteria in our intestines that play a crucial role in digestion. Our bodies are home to approximately 100 trillion “good” bacteria! These bacteria help maintain our health and even produce important vitamins like folic acid, niacin, and vitamins B6 and B12.
What happens in the absence of these good bacteria? Have you ever experienced diarrhea after taking antibiotics? It’s a common side effect for many people. While antibiotics eliminate “bad” bacteria that make us sick, they also eliminate a lot of “good” bacteria. Having too few good bacteria can upset your stomach and lead to diarrhea. You can replenish your intestinal flora by consuming certain foods, such as fermented foods like miso, tempeh, or kimchi. Yogurt, certain types of cheese, and yes, even buttermilk, can also provide your intestines with more good bacteria!
Have you ever consumed any foods that contain beneficial bacteria? Give it a try and show your gratitude to all the tiny organisms residing inside you!
Experiment with it
Are you ready to get creative in the kitchen? Grab a friend or family member and let’s get started!
- Most likely, some of your favorite foods include buttermilk. With the help of a friend or family member, try making biscuits, muffins, banana bread, cornbread, or even Irish soda bread. Yum! Afterward, you can explain to your friends how buttermilk functions in the recipe.
What happens when you combine an acid (such as buttermilk or vinegar) with a base (like baking soda)? Get together with a friend or family member and find out! You can follow a guide or conduct your own experiments. Keep a record of your results and share your discoveries with others.
Attempt to make your own butter at home with the assistance of a friend or family member! You can use videos like this one or this one to help you get started. Then, savor the fruits of your labor together!
Sources of Wonder
- https://www.britannica.com/dictionary (accessed 6 Jan., 2023)
- https://www.britannica.com/topic/buttermilk (accessed 7 Dec., 2022)
- https://www.livescience.com/45614-what-is-buttermilk.html (accessed 7 Dec., 2022)
- https://www.healthline.com/health/cold-flu/good-bad-germs (accessed 7 Dec., 2022)
- https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/buttermilk#bottom-line (accessed 7 Dec., 2022)
- https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/10-unleavened-breads.htm (accessed 9 Dec., 2022)
- https://slate.com/human-interest/2012/05/history-of-buttermilk-whats-the-difference-between-cultured-buttermilk-and-traditional-buttermilk.html (accessed 9 Dec., 2022)
1. Is buttermilk a living organism?
No, buttermilk is not a living organism. It is a dairy product that is made by fermenting milk with lactic acid bacteria. During the fermentation process, these bacteria convert lactose (the sugar in milk) into lactic acid, which gives buttermilk its tangy taste. While the bacteria are alive during the fermentation, they do not survive in the final product. Therefore, buttermilk does not contain any living organisms.
2. How is buttermilk made?
Buttermilk is made by adding lactic acid bacteria to milk and allowing it to ferment. The bacteria convert lactose into lactic acid, which gives the milk its characteristic tangy flavor. Traditionally, buttermilk was made by churning cream into butter and then adding water to the remaining liquid. This liquid, which contained the bacteria from the cream, would ferment and become buttermilk. Nowadays, commercial buttermilk is usually made by introducing lactic acid bacteria to pasteurized milk and allowing it to ferment for a specific period of time.
3. Can buttermilk be used as a substitute for regular milk?
Yes, buttermilk can be used as a substitute for regular milk in some recipes. However, it is important to note that buttermilk has a tangy taste and a thicker consistency compared to regular milk. When using buttermilk as a substitute, you may need to adjust the other ingredients in the recipe to achieve the desired flavor and texture. Buttermilk is commonly used in baking recipes like pancakes, muffins, and cakes to add moisture and enhance the flavor. It can also be used as a marinade for meats or in salad dressings to add a tangy kick.
4. How long does buttermilk last?
The shelf life of buttermilk depends on whether it is commercially packaged or homemade. Commercially packaged buttermilk usually has a “best by” date printed on the label, which indicates the date until which the buttermilk is expected to retain its quality. Typically, it can last for 1-2 weeks when refrigerated unopened, and 1 week after opening. Homemade buttermilk, on the other hand, may last for 1 week when stored in the refrigerator. It is important to check for any signs of spoilage, such as a foul odor or curdling, and discard the buttermilk if it appears spoiled.
5. Can lactose-intolerant people consume buttermilk?
People who are lactose-intolerant may be able to consume buttermilk, depending on the severity of their intolerance. The fermentation process of buttermilk reduces the lactose content, making it easier to digest for some lactose-intolerant individuals. However, it is important to note that not all lactose-intolerant individuals will tolerate buttermilk well. It is best to consult with a healthcare professional or try a small amount of buttermilk to see how your body reacts. There are also lactose-free versions of buttermilk available in some stores, which can be a suitable alternative for those with severe lactose intolerance.